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    英語演講26. Harry Truman - Truman Doctrine



    2008-10-16 22:19

    英語演講26. Harry Truman - Truman Doctrine


    26. Harry Truman - Truman Doctrine

    Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, Members of the Congress of the United States:

    The gravity of the situation which
    confronts the world today necessitates my appearance
    before a joint session of the Congress. The foreign policy and the national security of this
    country are involved. One aspect of the present situation, which I present to you at this time
    for your consideration and decision, concerns Greece and Turkey. The United States has
    received from the Greek Government an
    urgent appeal for financial and economic assistance.
    Preliminary reports from the American Economic Mission now in Greece and reports from the
    American Ambassador in Greece corroborate the statement of the Greek Government
    that assistance is imperative if Greece is to survive as a free nation.

    I do not believe that the American people and the Congress wish to turn a deaf ear to the
    appeal of the Greek Government. Greece is not
    a rich country. Lack of sufficient natural resources has always forced the Greek people to work hard
    to make both ends meet. Since
    1940, this industrious, peace loving country has suffered invasion, four years of cruel enemy
    occupation, and bitter internal strife.

    When forces of liberation entered Greece they found that the retreating Germans had
    destroyed virtually all the railways, roads, port facilities, communications, and merchant
    marine. More than a thousand villages had been burned. Eightyfive percent of the children
    were tubercular. Livestock, poultry, and draft animals had almost disappeared. Inflation
    had wiped out practically all savings. As a result of these tragic conditions, a militant minority,
    exploiting human want and misery, was able to create political chaos which, until
    now, has made economic recovery impossible.

    Greece is today without funds to finance the importation of those goods which are essential to
    bare subsistence. Under these circumstances, the people of Greece cannot
    make progress in solving their problems of reconstruction. Greece is in desperate need of financial and
    economic assistance to enable it to resume purchases of food, clothing, fuel, and seeds. These
    are indispensable for the subsistence of its people and are obtainable only from abroad.
    Greece must have help to import the goods necessary to restore internal order and security,
    so essential for economic and political recovery. The Greek Government has also asked for the
    assistance of experienced American administrators, economists, and technicians to
    insure that the financial and other aid given to Greece shall be used effectively in creating a stable and
    selfsustaining economy and in improving its public administration.

    The very existence of the Greek state is today threatened by the terrorist activities of several
    thousand armed men, led by Communists, who defy the government's authority at a number
    of points, particularly along the northern boundaries. A Commission appointed by the United
    Nations security Council
    is at present investigating disturbed conditions in
    northern Greece and alleged border violations along the frontiers between Greece on the one hand and
    Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia on the other.

    Meanwhile, the Greek Government is unable to cope with the situation. The Greek army is
    small and poorly equipped. It needs supplies and equipment if it is to restore authority of the
    government throughout Greek territory. Greece must
    have assistance if it is to become a selfsupporting and selfrespecting democracy. The United States must supply this assistance. We have already extended to Greece certain types of relief and economic aid.
    But these are
    inadequate. There is no other country to which democratic Greece can turn. No other nation
    is willing and able to provide the necessary support for a democratic Greek government.

    The British Government, which has been
    helping Greece, can give no further financial or economic aid after March
    31st. Great Britain finds itself under the necessity of reducing or
    liquidating its commitments in several parts of the world, including Greece.

    We have considered how the United Nations might assist in this crisis. But the situation is an
    urgent one, requiring immediate action, and the United Nations and its related organizations
    are not in a position to extend help of the kind that is required.

    It is important to note that the Greek Government has asked for our aid in utilizing effectively
    the financial and other assistance we may give to Greece, and in improving its public
    administration. It is of the utmost importance that we supervise the use of any funds made
    available to Greece in such a manner that each dollar spent will count toward making Greece
    selfsupporting, and will help to build an economy in which a healthy democracy can flourish.

    No government is perfect. One of the chief virtues of a democracy, however, is that its defects
    are always visible and under democratic processes can be pointed out and corrected. The
    Government of Greece is not perfect. Nevertheless it represents eightyfive
    percent of the members of the Greek Parliament who were chosen in an election last year. Foreign
    observers, including 692 Americans, considered this election to be a fair expression of the
    views of the Greek people.

    The Greek Government has been operating in an atmosphere of chaos and extremism. It
    has made mistakes. The extension of aid by this country does not mean that the United States
    condones everything that the Greek Government
    has done or will do. We have condemned in the past, and we condemn now, extremist measures of the right or the left. We have in the past advised tolerance, and we advise tolerance

    Greek's [sic] neighbor, Turkey, also deserves our attention. The future of Turkey, as an
    independent and economically sound state, is clearly no less important
    to the freedomloving peoples of the world than the future of Greece.
    The circumstances in which Turkey finds itself today are considerably different
    from those of Greece. Turkey has been spared the disasters that have beset
    Greece. And during the war, the United States and Great Britain furnished Turkey with material aid.

    Nevertheless, Turkey now needs our support. Since the war, Turkey has sought additional
    financial assistance from Great Britain and the United States for the purpose of effecting that
    modernization necessary for the maintenance of its national integrity. That integrity is
    essential to the preservation of order in the Middle East. The British government has informed
    us that, owing to its own difficulties, it can no longer extend financial or economic aid to Turkey. As
    in the case of Greece, if Turkey is to have the assistance it needs, the United
    States must supply it. We are the only country able to provide that help.

    I am fully aware of the broad implications involved if the United States extends assistance to
    Greece and Turkey, and I shall discuss these implications with you at this time. One of the
    primary objectives of the foreign policy of the United States is the creation of conditions in
    which we and other nations will be able to work out a way of life free from coercion. This was
    a fundamental issue in the war with Germany and Japan. Our victory was won over countries
    which sought to impose their will, and their way of life, upon other nations.

    To ensure the peaceful development of nations,
    free from coercion, the United States has taken a leading part
    in establishing the United Nations. The United Nations is designed to
    make possible lasting freedom and independence for all its members. We shall
    not realize our
    objectives, however, unless we are willing to
    help free peoples to maintain their free
    institutions and their national integrity against aggressive movements that seek to
    impose upon them totalitarian regimes. This is no
    more than a frank recognition that totalitarian regimes imposed upon free peoples, by direct or indirect aggression, undermine the foundations of international peace, and hence the security of the United States.

    The peoples of a number of countries of the world have recently had totalitarian regimes
    forced upon them against their will. The Government of the United States has made frequent
    protests against coercion and intimidation in violation of the Yalta agreement in Poland,
    Rumania, and Bulgaria. I must also state that in a number of other countries there have been
    similar developments.

    At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly
    imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio,
    fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.

    I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are
    resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.

    I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.

    I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is
    essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.

    The world is not static, and the status quo is not sacred. But we cannot allow changes in the status quo
    in violation of the Charter of the United Nations by such methods as coercion, or by
    such subterfuges as political infiltration. In helping free and independent
    nations to maintain their freedom, the United States will be giving effect to the principles of the Charter of the
    United Nations.

    It is necessary only to glance at a map to realize that the survival and integrity of the Greek
    nation are of grave importance in a much wider situation. If Greece should fall under the
    control of an armed minority, the effect upon its neighbor, Turkey, would be immediate and
    serious. Confusion and disorder might well spread throughout the entire Middle East.
    Moreover, the disappearance of Greece as an independent state would have a profound effect
    upon those countries in Europe whose peoples are struggling against great difficulties to
    maintain their freedoms and their independence while they repair the damages of war.

    It would be an unspeakable tragedy if these countries, which have struggled so long against
    overwhelming odds, should lose that victory for which they sacrificed so
    much. Collapse of free institutions and loss of independence would be disastrous not only for them but
    for the world. Discouragement and possibly failure would quickly be the lot of neighboring peoples
    striving to maintain their freedom and independence.

    Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this fateful hour, the effect will be far reaching to
    the West as well as to the East.

    We must take immediate and resolute action. I therefore ask the Congress to provide authority for assistance to
    Greece and Turkey in the amount of $400,000,000 for the period ending June 30, 1948. In
    requesting these funds, I have taken into consideration the maximum amount of relief assistance which would be furnished to Greece out of the $350,000,000 which I
    recently requested that the Congress authorize for the prevention of starvation and suffering in
    countries devastated by the war.

    In addition to funds, I ask the Congress to authorize the detail of American civilian and military personnel to
    Greece and Turkey, at the request of those countries, to assist in the tasks of reconstruction, and for the purpose of supervising the use of such financial and material assistance as may be furnished. I recommend that authority also be provided for the instruction and training of selected
    Greek and Turkish personnel. Finally, I ask that the Congress provide authority which will permit the speediest and most effective use, in terms of needed commodities, supplies, and equipment, of such funds as may be authorized.
    If further funds, or further authority, should be needed for the purposes indicated in this message, I
    shall not hesitate to bring the situation before the Congress. On this subject the Executive and
    Legislative branches of the Government must work together.

    This is a serious course upon which we embark. I would not recommend it except that the
    alternative is much more serious. The United States contributed $341,000,000,000 toward
    winning World War II. This is an investment in world freedom and world peace. The assistance
    that I am recommending for Greece and Turkey amounts to little more than 1 tenth of 1 percent
    of this investment. It is only common sense that we should safeguard
    this investment and make sure that it was not in vain. The seeds of totalitarian
    regimes are nurtured by misery and want. They spread and grow in the evil soil of poverty and strife. They reach
    their full growth when the hope of a people for a better life has died.

    We must keep that hope alive.
    The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms. If we falter
    in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world.
    And we shall surely endanger the welfare of this nation.
    Great responsibilities have been placed upon us by the swift movement of events.

    I am confident that the Congress will face these responsibilities squarely.